European Solar Physics Online Seminar

Following an initiative by the University of Oslo the MPS will participate in the "European Solar Physics Online Seminar" series (ESPOS). Details can be found here: https://folk.uio.no/tiago/espos/
The aim of this video conference series is to promote ideas more widely with a specialized audience, and give some exposure to cutting-edge research for students and other young researchers that do not regularly travel to conferences. The ESPOS series is planned to take place every second Thursday at 11am.

Location: Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences (broadcasted at MPS)
Sunspots are the longest known manifestation of solar activity and their magnetic nature has been known for more than a century. Despite this, the boundary between umbrae and penumbrae, the two fundamental sunspot regions, has hitherto been solely defined by an intensity threshold. We now unveil the empirical law of the magnetic nature of the umbra-penumbra boundary in stable sunspots: an invariant vertical component of the magnetic field. We study the magnetic nature of umbra-penumbra boundaries in sunspots of different sizes, morphology, evolutionary stage, and phase of the solar cycle. We use a sample of 88 scans of Hinode/SOT spectropolarimeter to infer the magnetic field properties at the umbral boundaries. We define these boundaries by an intensity threshold and perform a statistically analysis of the magnetic field properties at these boundaries. We statistically prove that the umbra-penumbra boundary in stable sunspots is characterised by an invariant value of the vertical component of the magnetic field: The vertical component of the magnetic field strength does not depend on the umbra size, its morphology, and phase of the solar cycle. With statistical Bayesian inference, we find that the vertical component of the magnetic field strength is, with 99\% likelihood, in the range of 1849-1885 G with the most probable value of 1867 G. In contrast, the magnetic field strength and inclination averaged along individual boundaries are found to be dependent on the umbral size: The larger the umbra, the stronger and more horizontal the magnetic field at its boundary is. [more]
To understand the links between the distribution of the prominence plasma, the configuration of its magnetic field and the observations of prominence/filament fine structures obtained in UV/EUV, optical and radio domains from various vantage points, we need complex 3D prominence models. We have developed two such models which combine 3D magnetic field configurations of an entire prominence with a detailed description of the prominence plasma distributed along hundreds of fine structures. The first 3D Whole-Prominence Fine Structure (WPFS) model, developed by Gunár & Mackay (2015), uses a magnetic field configuration obtained from non-linear force-free field simulations of Mackay & van Ballegooijen (2009). The second WPFS model was developed by Gunár, Dudík, Aulanier, Schmieder & Heinzel (2018). The model employs a magnetic field configuration of a polar crown prominence based on the linear force-free field modelling approach designed by Aulanier & Démoulin (1998) which allows us to calculate linear magneto-hydrostatic extrapolations from photospheric flux distributions. The prominence plasma in both models is located in magnetic dips that occur naturally in the predominantly horizontal prominence magnetic field. This plasma has a realistic distribution of the density and temperature, including the prominence-corona transition region. The models thus provide comprehensive information about the 3D distribution of the prominence plasma and magnetic field which can be consistently studied both as a prominence on the limb and as a filament on the disk. These models can be visualized for example in the H-alpha spectral line. Together with the models, we will present some of their capabilities which allow us to study the evolution of prominences/filaments or to analyze the true and apparent shapes and motions of the prominence fine structures. [more]
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